Mention highly dilute solutions and homeopathy comes to mind along with the ferocious attacks and dismissal by the conventional scientific and medical community indoctrinated on a mechanistic biology that’s fast becoming obsolete. Within the past decade, new findings in the quantum physics and chemistry of water have put water at the centre stage of cell and organismic biology (see  Living Rainbow H2O, ISIS publication) based on a new framework of quantum electrodynamics field theory of condensed matter ).
Simultaneously, as Academician Alexander Konovalov at Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science Kazan Science Center, Tatarstan, points out , thousands of papers have documented that solutions of biologically active substances in water can give biological effects not only at ordinary concentrations of 10-3 to 10-7 M, but also at very high (homeopathic) dilutions, separated by concentrations in between that have little or no effect. This U-shaped curve is so prevalent that it has been given a name: ‘hormesis’.
Over the past 6 years, Konovalov and his team have studied about 100 compounds at 10-2 to 10-20 M, diluted sequentially with rigorous shaking (succussion) starting from the initial solution (reviewed in [3, 4]). The list includes antioxidants, plant growth regulators, neuro-mediators, vitamins, tranquilizers, hormones, various drugs as well as substances of unknown biological effects. The compounds range from simple molecules like glycine to complex macrocyclic compounds like porphyrins or calyxarenes.
They monitored electric conductivity, surface tension, pH and in some cases dielectric permeability and optical activity at different dilutions. To measure the size of nanostructures formed in solution, the team used dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS is a physical technique generally used for determining the size distribution of small particles in suspension or polymers in solution . Water chemists have discovered that it also enables the detection of nano-objects in highly dilute solutions that have very few solute molecules left, and this has greatly facilitated research on such solutions. At the same time, the technique determines the surface electrical (zeta) potential of the nano-objects.
Recently, the experiments were carried out both on the lab bench and within a three-layer permalloy (iron/nickel) container shielding out external electromagnetic fields. For example, the geomagnetic field was brought down to a thousandth of its normal level.
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